Depending on the specific applications, there will be different options in 3 phase transformers that will be a better match for the job. While it is common to hear people say that the single phase should be used for residential or light types of applications and the three phases for industrial or more demanding applications, this is really an oversimplification of the differences.
There are single phase options that are ideal for specific types of industrial or commercial systems, while some applications are better suited to the three phase options. Considering the differences and taking the time to understand the pros and cons of each will be essential in choosing the correct option.
The other interesting fact to consider is that three single phase components can be used to create a three-phase system. In fact, the 3 phase transformers are just a pre-configured and compact set of three single-phase units.
A single-phase power system will allow the power to come into the primary winding and out the secondary winding. This is all that is required to provide the necessary step up or step down between the primary input and the secondary output voltage.
With the three phase systems, the three single coils are positioned at one hundred and twenty degrees from each other in the component. Each has its own windings, which generate the power within the central magnetic field. Additionally, instead of just the secondary connectors providing power out of the system, there are three different lines used, which provides the three phase requirements.
Generally, when power is required to be consistent and with very limited variations, the 3 phase transformers are the ideal choice. They are carefully crafted and tested to ensure the three-section core and the windings are operating in the correct sequence to provide the necessary, consistent voltage.